LAWYER

lawyer

n. 律师;法律工作者;法律家 对从事法律职业者或拥有法学知识者的总称。这一职业称为Practice of Law,其含义并无一致界定,但通常包括代表他人出庭以及在法庭上或法庭外为他人提供法律指导。在英国则将律师分为出庭律师〔barrister; advocate〕和事务律师〔solicitor〕,而在美国对律师则不作分类,但实际上仍广泛存在各种异于lawyer一词的称谓。美国律师称谓〔What are lawyers referred to in the United States〕1常用同义词〔general synonyms〕 attorney(attorney at law的简称,最为常用,复数为attorneys);counsel(既可作单数用,也可作复数用,复数形式偶用counsels);counselor(counselor at law的简称,应用于某些司法管辖区);member of the bar2政府律师〔government lawyers〕 Attorney General(总检察长,同为司法部长,复数为attorneys general); Solicitor General(副总检察长);district attorney(地区检察官,指县〔county〕或类似县的地方的检察官,也称作county attomey; county prosecutor; prosecuting attorney; public prosecutor; state's attorney.在联邦司法区也称United States attorney); county counsel(县律师,有时称solicitor,是县或类似县的地方处理民事案件的律师);city attorney(市律师,是市处理民事和刑事案件的律师);legislative counsel(立法顾问);public defender(联邦、州及地方的公设辩护人);trial judge advocate(军事检察官,在军事法院〔court martial〕履行控诉职能的官员,通常但不必定是律师);United States attorney(美国检察官)3私人律师〔private lawyers〕 general counsel(首席法律顾问,指某一企业的首席律师或全体律师);house counsel(企业法律顾问,也称in-house counsel,为企业的正式僱员,通常工作于企业营业所,区别于专为处理某一事务而外聘的法律顾问〔outside counsel〕);of counsel(特邀律师);public interest lawyer(公益律师,受雇于公益律师事务所〔public interest law firm/PILF〕,减免收费为客户提供法律服务)4专业律师〔expertise or specialization〕 如criminal lawyer; divorce lawyer; tax lawyer; admiralty lawyer(也称proctor in admiralty); litigator(诉讼律师,律师事务所中诉讼部〔litigation department〕的律师和那些出席法庭的律师使用该称呼)5当今分工〔role of the moment〕 attorney of record(记录在案的律师);counsel of record(=attorney of record); trial lawyer(庭审律师,类别有defense counsel; plaintiff's counsel; of counsel on the brief) retained counsel(受聘律师,区别于法官为当事人指定的律师〔assigned or appointed counsel〕);prosecutor(检察官或称控方律师,有时亦称独立检察官〔independent counsel〕; prosecuting attorney(=prosecutor); private attorney general(共同私人代理人)6贬称〔uncomplimen- tary synonyms〕 ambulance chaser(救护车追赶者,用于形容律师以有问题的手段招来业务);shyster(经营业务手段成问题的律师);pettifogger(讼棍);Philadelphia lawyer(费城律师,指收费昂贵,善于寻找法律漏洞的律师);legal eagle(法鹰或称法犬,指收费高,善于寻找法律漏洞的律师);legal beagle(=legal eagle); hired gun(枪手,形容唯利是图的律师);lip(喉舌,形容唯利是图的刑事律师,暗示与黑社会有染);mouthpiece(=lip); Wall Street Lawyer(华尔街律师,在华尔街专司大企业金融服务的律师)7尊称〔complimentary additions〕 Esquire(…先生,简称Esq.);distinguished member of the bar(格式引语,可用于指称任一律师);Successful attorney(用于对辞世的律师的颂称) Source:Adapted from David Mellinkoff, Mellinkoff's Dictionary of American Legal Usage, U.S.A.: West Publication Co., 1992, pp.362-366   ? 代表自己出庭者;亲自出庭者 不管其本人是否获得律师执业许可,如acting as his own lawyer。  ? 未获执业律师资格而提供某些律师服务者;准律师 在行政程序中以及在美国税务法院〔U.S. Tax Court〕,在不要求有执业律师的情况下,对代理人可称之为「以律师身份」〔acting as a lawyer〕,或称之为业余律师〔lay lawyer〕。在美国专利局〔U.S. Patent Office〕,专利代理人〔patent agents〕也是作为律师工作,而未被冠以律师的称呼。在这一意义上使用该词时也存在一些贬称,如监狱中使用的jailhouse lawyer; writ writer,在军队中使用的guardhouse lawyer。  (→attorney; counsel) v.? 从事律师职业 ?  培养律师;提供律师


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资深译员Dan,毕业于美国顶尖的高级翻译学院,专注翻译各种与消费者集团诉讼有关的法律文件。